Revista Cercetări Marine - Revue Recherches Marines - Marine Research Journal <p>The journal CERCETĂRI MARINE - RECHERCHES MARINES (ISSN 0250-3069) has published since 1971 studies on issues related to oceanography, marine engineering, marine biology and marine living resources and environmental protection. Continuing the rich tradition of oceanology research, the 48 volumes published in as many years hosted the scientific articles and reports of a great array of researcher generations.</p> Romanian Institute for Marine Research and Development “Grigore Antipa” en-US Revista Cercetări Marine - Revue Recherches Marines - Marine Research Journal 0250-3069 <p class="western">This is an open access journal, which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.</p> Introduction and table of contents Mariana Golumbeanu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-20 2022-12-20 52 1 1 1 10.55268/CM.2022.52.1 Assessment of the Geomorphological and Sedimentological Changes in Mamaia Sector after the Implementation of the Coastal Protection Measures The paper analyses the changes in the beach sector of Mamaia resort from a geomorphological and sedimentological point of view in the context of coastal protection works carried out in 2014-2015 and 2021 (measures to reduce wave energy, beach protection with structures to stabilize the sand and beach nourishment). The Mamaia sector, with a length of about 12 km, is geomorphologically constituted mainly by sandy barrier of Lake Siutghiol representing a transition unit between the northern unit (deltaic and lagoon shore) and the southern unit (small pocket rocks-beaches in front, separated by small coastal sandbars). From an economic point of view, the sector is important for coastal tourism both in terms of the number of tourists and the existing of infrastructure generating significant revenues. Since the 1950s, the sector has been severely affected by the construction of the dikes of the Midia Port in the north, which have affected the longitudinal transport of sediments and accentuated the erosion of the submerged and backshore beach. To counteract the effects of erosion, a longitudinal and transversal coastal protection system was built between 1960 and 1990, which proved to be ineffective in the long term. <p>The data collected in the field (topographic profiles of the backshore, shoreline, sediment samples) before and after the recent coastal protection works were processed using a dedicated software (ArcGIS 10.x and Gradistat v8) and represented in the form of maps and graphics. The spatial analysis highlighted the modification of the coastal system components, the trends of the beach evolution in longitudinal and transversal profile and the changes in the structure and distribution of sediments determined by the impact of the coastal protection works. Dragoș Marin Silică Petrișoaia Alina Spînu Razvan Mateescu Dănuț Diaconeasa Emil Vespremeanu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-20 2022-12-20 52 1 6 6 10.55268/CM.2022.52.6 Monitoring of Coastal Evolution in Constanta and Eforie North Areas Following research carried out by research institutes as well as other institutions and international agencies which concluded that the southern part of the Romanian shoreline is constantly under attack by erosion, reaching measured land loss rates of up to 2 meters per year which in turn impacts litoral ecosystems, overall safety, businesses, livelihood and living quality, the Dobrogea-Litoral Water Basin Administration contracted technical assistance in order to devise a coastal zone management strategy (Coastal Zone Master Plan[1]). <p>The whole coastal area between the Chilia branch of the river Danube to the north and the Vama Veche locality to the south was analyzed, studies in multiple fields were carried out including hydraulic modelling and a diagnostic analysis of the erosion process and it`s effects on the environment was made. The results of these studies laid the base for a coastal zone management strategy over the span of the following 30 years. Conclusions of the master plan were that the northern unit was not an immediate priority from the point of view of the erosion, the coastline was more stable and less human presence. The southern unit, however, was classified as being under the intense influence of coastal erosion and thus determined the introduction of short-term structural measures materialized through the completion of the first phase of the “Reduction of Coastal Erosion” major project. Total length of protected coastline is 7.3 kilometers, and the works were finalized in 2015. Since then, we have been investigating the evolution of the morphology of the coast area (shoreline) and modifications due to natural and human factors by means of photogrammetry and GNSS on a UAV and underwater echo sounders. In addition, other factors such as water biology, chemistry and even beach sand grain size were also monitored to create a better image of the coastline evolution. Liviu Bădoiu Cristina Șeuleanu Florentina Caloianu Nicușor Buzgaru ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-20 2022-12-20 52 1 17 17 10.55268/CM.2022.52.17 Extreme Waves Conditions at the Entrance of Constanta Port The aim of this study is to obtain the extreme wave propagation at the entrance of Constanta maritime port area, as well as the impacts on port operations. The wave propagation modeling took into account the bathymetry of the harbor in the area of interest, updated port extensions layout, measurements and digitized bathymetric maps. For the selected offshore waves directions, considered for the harbor entrance area, the incident waves of maximum impact and the peak period values corresponding to the extreme heights of the significant wave at different return periods were calculated. For this study it was used a mild-slope wave propagation numerical model. The model provided quantitative evaluation of the vulnerability induced by the wave agitation on the port developing areas and an overview on hydrodynamic conditions which are the basis for various shelter facilities developments in Constanta Harbor, in extreme events circumstances. Elena Vlăsceanu Ichinur Omer Dragoș Niculescu Dragoș Marin Răzvan Mateescu Liliana Rusu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-20 2022-12-20 52 1 36 36 10.55268/CM.2022.52.36 Chemical status evaluation of the Romanian Black Sea marine environment based on benthic organisms’ contamination The use of living organisms to provide information on the quality of aquatic environments is now a widely accepted methodology for assessing contaminant bioavailability. Molluscs have developed tolerance mechanisms towards environmental stressors and can accumulate a large range of contaminants. The assessment of marine environment quality was based on heavy metals (HM), persistent organic pollutants (organochlorine pesticides – OCPs and polychlorinated biphenyls - PCBs) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) analysis in Mytilus galloprovincialis, Rapana venosa, Anadara kagoshimensis species sampled during 2016 - 2020 along Romanian Black Sea coast. Toxic metals (cadmium, lead) had bioaccumulation levels below threshold values in most molluscs samples investigated. Cadmium registered few values (15%) surpassing maximum admissible levels, in all three species. Data evaluation demonstrated the maintenance of a high level of concentrations of persistent organic pollutants in the mollusc tissue, but also of the exceedances of the values that characterize the good ecological status of these compounds. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons showed a declining trend and no exceeding of the maximum allowed limit for benzo[a]pyrene was recorded in the last years. In consequence, the overview assessment based on “OneOutAllOut” (OOAO) approach, considering all groups of substances, indicates a bad chemical status for this period. Nicoleta Damir Diana Danilov Andra Oros Luminița Lazăr Valentina Coatu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-20 2022-12-20 52 1 52 52 10.55268/CM.2022.52.52 Long Term Quantitative Variation of the Main Opportunistic Macroalgae Species Along the Romanian Black Sea Coast Opportunistic macroalgae are those species with an accentuated reproductive capacity, able of generating significant algal deposits during summer season. Opportunistic species associations are an important component of the upper infralittoral rock with variable annual green and red macroalgae habitat, sub-type of the broad habitat infralittoral rock and biogenic reef. For a better overview of the evolution of these species, a long data series (2009 – 2021) was analysed. Samples were collected from depths between 0 and 8 m, along Năvodari towards Vama Veche, where opportunistic species experience an abundant development especially during summer season. In the last decade, quantitatively dominant were the green algae of the genera Ulva (mainly U. rigida, with a biomass variation between 5 and 2500 g/m2) and Cladophora (mainly C. vagabunda, with a biomass variation between 3 and 2800 g/m2). At Agigea, U. rigida recorded high biomass values (the largest U. rigida field can be found here, with a spatial distribution between 1 and 3 m depth), whilst Eforie proved to be more favorable for the development of Cladophora spp. Regarding the quantitative evolution of the opportunistic species, 4 scenarios have emerged during 2009 - 2021: during 2009 summer season, the dominant quantitative genus was Ulva; 2010 summer came with abnormal high water temperatures and nutrients values, extreme factors that proved favorable for the development of Cladophora species; starting with 2014 until 2019, the quantitative dominance returned to Ulva spp., but with lower biomass values compared to Cladophora spp. Starting with 2019, a new increase of Cladophora biomass was recorded. Oana Marin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-20 2022-12-20 52 1 78 78 10.55268/CM.2022.52.78 Culture Techniques for Acartia clausi from the Romanian Black Sea coastal waters As copepods are an important food source for most fish larvae, there is a continuing interest in developing techniques for culturing marine copepods as live food in aquaculture. Studies have shown that several species of calanoid copepods can be used successfully in aquaculture, acclimatized and grown in the laboratory over several generations and serve as testing organisms in acute toxicity tests. However, significant difficulties in cultivating calanoid copepods in high quantities were reported. They are related to their low tolerance to changes in water quality and reduced production capacity compared to other taxonomic groups. Therefore, working methods for obtaining viable cultures of calanoid copepods are dependent highly on the local environmental context. Until now, such a method has not been implemented for calanoid species from the Romanian Black Sea coast. This paper details the methodology we adapted and used for achieving a viable Acartia (Acartiura) clausi (Giesbrecht, 1889) culture using specimens collected along the Romania Black Sea coast Reproduction and egg hatching occurred under laboratory-controlled conditions, and viable individuals of A. clausi were obtained. Our results open the possibility of integrating this species in toxicity tests and food production for the marine aquaculture industry. George-Emanuel Harcotă Elena Bișinicu Florin Timofte Aurelia Țoțoiu Cristina Tabarcea Geta Rîșnoveanu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-20 2022-12-20 52 1 91 91 10.55268/CM.2022.52.91 Turbot Survivability, Catches and Gillnet-Caused Injuries. Scientific Support for the Exemption from the Landing Obligation in EU Black Sea Countries The European Common Fisheries Policy aims to gradually eliminate discards in all European Union fisheries through the introduction of a landing obligation for all catches of species subject to catch limits (turbot and sprat for the Black Sea). In 2016, the Commission established a discard plan for turbot fisheries in the Black Sea, that provided for a survivability exemption of turbot caught with bottom-set gillnets, applied from 1 January 2017 until 31 December 2019. Subsequently, Romania and Bulgaria submitted an updated Joint Recommendation to the Commission, requesting the renewal of the discard plan and the survivability exemption based on the high survival rates of this species. The Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (STECF) acknowledged the existence of data demonstrating the high survivability of turbot caught by vessels from non-EU countries using the same gears, however they requested that Member States concerned should submit additional data on survival estimates relating to the gillnet fishery for turbot. In this context, NIMRD “Grigore Antipa“ was commissioned by the Romanian National Agency for Fisheries and Aquaculture (NAFA) to perform a pilot study aiming at obtaining scientific evidence for the exemption of turbot from the landing obligation, carried-out during January-April 2022. Scientific fishing was performed in the Romanian marine area with specialized gears - turbot gillnets on board of NIMRD’s boat. The methodology consisted of launching the gillnets in established locations and recovering them after a soaking time depending on weather conditions. After each operation to recover the nets from the water, all turbot specimens caught were retained on board, parked in a fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) container filled with seawater and equipped with an aeration system. The specimens were kept in the tank for 1 hour, during which time they were monitored from the point of view of their condition (dead, alive, injuries, other negative effects produced by the fishing gear). Subsequently, all turbot specimens declared viable were released back into the sea. The results indicate high survivability rates of turbot caught in gillnets (81.67%). Some injuries were reported in the dead specimens, probably caused by the mechanical action of the gear. Victor Niță Magda Nenciu Cristian Danilov George Țiganov Mădălina Galațchi Cătălin Păun Dragoș Diaconu Daniel Grigoraș ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-20 2022-12-20 52 1 106 106 10.55268/CM.2022.52.106 Screening the Implementation of HACCP Principles in the Romanian Seafood Industry. Case Studies and Optimisation Scenarios HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) is considered an efficient tool for both the food industry and health authorities in preventing foodborne diseases. Seafood and fishery products in particular may harbor biological, chemical and physical hazards, as their chemical composition makes them much more perishable than meat products and constitute better substrates for growth of pathogenic bacteria. In this context, the aim of this paper was to perform an in-depth analysis of the HACCP implementation for the major shellfish [rapa whelk Rapana venosa (Valenciennes, 1846) and Black Sea mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck, 1819] and marine/freshwater fish species [Danube shad Alosa immaculata Bennett, 1835; sprat Sprattus sprattus (Linnaeus, 1758); mackerel Scomber scombrus Linnaeus, 1758; various carp species] processed by the Romanian seafood industry at the Black sea coast. Field visits to the processing plants were performed in February and March 2022 and the application of the HACCP plan was documented, in order to identify potential weaknesses and drawbacks. Optimization scenarios for each of the two case studies were considered, to foster the safe and responsible development of the sector in Romania. Magda Nenciu John-A. Theodorou Mihaela Geicu-Cristea Victor Niță ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-20 2022-12-20 52 1 123 123 10.55268/CM.2022.52.123 Assuring the long-term sustainability of the Surveying & MARiTime internet of thingS EducAtion (SMARTSEA) Project The study is focused on the exploitation and dissemination activities for the sustainability of the MSc program on Smart Maritime & Surveying Systems within the Surveying & MARiTime internet of thingS EducAtion (SMARTSEA) project. A key factor for success is to ensure that the results and achievements of the project are made widely available to its target audience comprised of students, industrial partners, academic & market business and scientific community. <p>As a unique European pilot-project funded by the European Union’s Erasmus+ Programme Knowledge Alliances, SMARTSEA aimed to develop an advanced interactive certified MSc course related to Maritime & Surveyor IoT applications that will train individuals with the necessary skills & knowledge to work in the rising “Smart Maritime & Surveying” industry. <p>To reach its target audiences according to its expected impacts, an effective communication strategy was developed, based on project-specific dissemination and communication activities. <p>This approach will provide an overview of the resources needed to accomplish the exploitation and dissemination objectives throughout the project lifecycle, while creating guidelines for future development and exploitation. Ana Serafia Mariana Golumbeanu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-20 2022-12-20 52 1 148 148 10.55268/CM.2022.52.148 National Research and Development Core Program - Continuity Support for Marine Research Launched in 2003, the Core National Research and Development Programme has become an essential source of national funding for scientific research. The marine and coastal fields have had the necessary research support, through the continuous financing of several multi-annual Core Programme, which NIMRD has carried out over time. Thus, NIMRD has run six Core Programs so far. The paper presents funding details from 2003-2020, with an analysis of the financial distribution per program and over time, revealing the influence of political and internal management decisions. The paper ends with the presentation of the Core Program in progress, at the time of writing. <p>An obvious conclusion is that without basic support, it is not possible to guarantee the functioning of the NIRDs and to cover the national research strategy evenly. This minimum basis also creates the conditions for international collaborations in the field, and involvement in European research programs, without forgetting the accomplishment of the external community obligations and the internal alignment in which Romania is taking part. NIMRD has been operating for over 50 years and continues to meet the increasingly complex requirements of environmental research. This is demonstrated by the experience of over 18 years of participation in the National Core Research-Development Programme. Vasile Patrascu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-20 2022-12-20 52 1 159 159 10.55268/CM.2022.52.159 In memoriam Constantin Maxim Viorel Dumitrescu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-20 2022-12-20 52 1 180 180 10.55268/CM.2022.52.180 In memoriam Marius Iliescu Tania Zaharia Maria Moldoveanu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-12-20 2022-12-20 52 1 184 184 10.55268/CM.2022.52.184